Translations of Chinese Literature

A while back I was contacted through this blog by a reader asking if I could recommend the English translation of Fengshen yanyi 封神演義 (Creation of the Gods, by Gu Zhizhong), especially considering that it is a bit pricey. After answering them via email, I also want to share my recommendation on Sino Literature and give some context to translations of Chinese classics into other languages. I’ll mostly stick to translations of Fengshen yanyi and Xiyou ji 西遊記 (Journey to the West), because I have the most experience with them.

The publisher of Gu Zhizhong’s translation, the Foreign Language Press in Beijing, is actually responsible for some pretty solid English translations to Chinese classical novels. See below for the covers for the editions of their translations of the Four Masterpieces: Three Kingdoms (a translation of Sanguo yanyi 三國演義 by Moss Roberts), A Dream of Red Mansions (a translation of Honglou meng 紅樓夢 by Gladys Yang and Yang Xianyi 楊憲益), Journey to the West (a translation of Xiyou ji 西遊記 by W.J.F. Jenner), and Outlaws of the Marsh (a translation of Shuihu zhuan 水滸傳 by Sindey Shapiro).

The way in which the Foreign Laguage Press commissioned translations was quite interesting, as Jenner’s recollection of the translation process in Journey to the East, “Journey to the West”  in the LA Review of Books reveals. I had no idea how much events in China in the 20th c. affected Jenner’s work as a translator until I read this article. But because of this, his translation ended up being published in 1983-1984, shortly after Anthony C. Yu 余國藩 published the first unabridged translation in the USA between 1977 and 1983. Which is good news for readers, because it means you have two very different translations to choose from!

Anthony C. Yu’s scholarly translation is of course very famous. But personally, I found it hard to read compared to Jenner’s style. This might be owing to the fact that Yu was not a native speaker of English, but I rather think it was because this Professor of Religion and Literature was more interested in scholarly correctness than readability. I often use his work as a reference during my research, but I was glad that my first exposure to the novel was through Jenner’s work, who did a great job in capturing the spirit of the original, which had been a stated aim of his:

My aim in doing Journey to the West was to make it as much fun in English as it is in the original. I also wanted it complete and uncut.

An excerpt of Jenner’s translation on Read Paper Rebublic. I personally really enjoyed his style and I would definitely recommend this translation to any casual reader.

The same publishers that commissioned Jenner and other English native speakers to translate a bunch of significant Chinese novels also asked Gu Zhizhong, who I assume to be a Chinese native speaker, to translate Fengshen yanyi. The translation was first published in 1992 as Creation of the Gods. Unfortunately I can only partially recommend Gu Zhizhong’s translation, and I will give you my reasons to let you decide for yourself: 

The positive: It is the only complete translation of Fengshen yanyi into a Western language that I am aware of. The edition I read (from 1992 I think), was also nicely done with interesting woodcut illustrations throughout the novel. 

The negative: Firstly, it is not a very faithful translation. Poems are generally left untranslated and sentences often paraphrased. I think, when ever the translator found something difficult, he just skipped it. Secondly, I think Gu Zhizhong was not an English native speaker and not very familiar with Western mythology and some of his translations are really off. For example Taiyi zhenren 太乙真人 (“True Man Primordial”) a powerful Daoist immortal, becomes “Fairy Primordial” in his translation, which conjures up a very different image. 

Nevertheless, this translation is good to get a general feel for the novel. As for the price: maybe you can find a copy at a university library near you, so you don’t need to buy it? Especially if you have universities with Sinology/Chinese Studies departments near you, you might find it there. I also always recommend checking to see, if the book is available anywhere near you. Lastly, there seems to be a PDF version of a bilingual edition of Fengshen yanyi floating around the internet. But I don’t think this can actually legally be bought anywhere, unfortunately. 

For anyone reading German: there is an incomplete translation of Fengshen yanyi by Wilhem Grube, which I wrote about in this post.

There is also an excellent German translation of Xiyouji out now: Die Reise in den Westen, by Eva Lüdi Kong. This translation conveys both the fun and the religious and cultural background of the novel.

For more info on Xiyouji, check out the excellent Journey to the West Research blog by Jim R. McClanahan.

Gu Zhizhong, Creation of the Gods, 1992, on

Anthony C. Yu, Journey to the West, 1977-1983, on

WJF Jenner, Journey to the West, 1982-84, on

Eva Lüdi Kong, Die Reise in den Westen. Ein klassischer chinesischer Roman, 2017, on

Grube, Wilhelm, Metamorphosen der Götter: Historisch-mythologischer Roman aus dem Chinesischen, 1912. Facsimile on part 1, part 2

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Barbara Witt 衛易萱, graduated with a PhD in Chinese Studies from LMU Munich, currently a Postdoc at NCCU 政治大學 in Taipei at the Center for Chinese Cultural Subjectivity 華人文化主體性研究中心.

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